Directadmin – x509: certificate signed by unknown authority – Letsencrypt

DST Root CA X3 expired on September 30, 2021. Because of this I got invalid certificate error when visiting Directadmin login in Chrome. Certificate itself was valid. CA certificate is problem. What you have to do is update system CA certificates. Also update letsencrypt via custombuild if you didn’t already.

Error was:

[root@server]# /usr/local/directadmin/scripts/letsencrypt.sh renew my.server.com
Setting up certificate for a hostname: my.server.com
2021/09/30 14:49:15 Could not create client: get directory at 'https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory': Get "https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory": x509: certificate signed by unknown authority
Certificate generation failed.

You have to update system CA certificates ( Centos in this case ):

[root@server ~]# yum install ca-certificates -y
....
[root@server ~]# update-ca-trust

Then try to create new certificate for server hostname:

[root@server]# /usr/local/directadmin/scripts/letsencrypt.sh request_single my.server.com 4096
Setting up certificate for a hostname: my.server.com
2021/09/30 14:51:50 [INFO] [my.server.com] acme: Obtaining SAN certificate
2021/09/30 14:51:51 [INFO] [my.server.com] AuthURL: https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/acme/authz-v3/35702261650
2021/09/30 14:51:51 [INFO] [my.server.com] acme: Could not find solver for: tls-alpn-01
2021/09/30 14:51:51 [INFO] [my.server.com] acme: use http-01 solver
2021/09/30 14:51:51 [INFO] [my.server.com] acme: Trying to solve HTTP-01
2021/09/30 14:51:57 [INFO] [my.server.com] The server validated our request
2021/09/30 14:51:57 [INFO] [my.server.com] acme: Validations succeeded; requesting certificates
2021/09/30 14:52:01 [INFO] [my.server.com] Server responded with a certificate.
Certificate for my.server.com has been created successfully!
DirectAdmin certificate has been setup.
...

Directadmin – ModSecurity: Request body (Content-Length) is larger than the configured limit (13107200)

I had problem with uploading files on Directadmin server with mod_security enabled. I set upload_max_filesize and post_max_size to 64M, and still recived error like this:

[Wed Aug 04 23:31:30.320425 1912] [:error] [pid 1418987:tid 140666332325632] [client 89.212.96.1:64983] [client 89.212.96.1] ModSecurity: Request body (Content-Length) is larger than the configured limit (13107200). [hostname "www.geekytuts.net"] [uri "/wp-admin/async-upload.php"] [unique_id "YQpCUpEZgUlp9rxIlbunrAAAnTQ"], referer: https://www.geekytuts.net/wp-admin/media-new.php

I found out that this behavior is not caused by any mod_security rules (Free ModSecurity Rules from Comodo) but by directive SecRequestBodyLimit setting . Default value is 12.5M and since I set 64M for file uploads, I changed this value the same – in bytes.

File which you want to modify is /etc/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-modsecurity.conf. In my case, I modifyed like this:

SecRequestBodyLimit 67108864
SecRequestBodyNoFilesLimit 1048576

Directadmin – Unrouteable address error on incoming mail

I had this stupid error the other day on Directadmin. I upgraded Exim to the latest version and then all mail sent to address@email.com which was on this server was bounced with the error “Unrouteable address”. From the past, I knew that errors like this can be due to exceeded mail limit. But in this case, this was happening only for one mail out of 50 others, and no limits were reached.

After some searching, I found out that there was an alias pointing to the email address itself, which was causing this error. I removed the forwarder (alias) and incoming mail started to work again on this mailbox.

2021-05-09 20:53:28 H=([1.1.1.1]) [2.2.2.2] F=<us11-99cb50d256-903kjsd32113@inbound.mailchimp.com> rejected RCPT <address@email.com>: Unrouteable address

So I had mail forwarder like:
address@email.com -> address@email.com

So when dealing with such an error, just remove the alias like described above.

Directadmin – Process failed (1) when writing error message to your@mail.com (frozen)

User complained about not being able to receive error messages from remote mail servers. When he sent to this email address from Gmail, error message return, but when he tried from Directadmin server, no error message arrived in inbox. I could see those messages in Exim’s mail queue as frozen.

In Exim mail log, this error was shown:

Process failed (1) when writing error message to your@mail.com (frozen)

After a while of digging online, I’ve found out that BlockCracking is causing this problem. We had BlockCracking version 1.8 which was apparently version with this issue. You’ll have to upgrade BlockCracking to version 1.10 or newer. Just go to your Directadmin’s custombuild directory, then follow this steps:

./build exim
./build dovecot_conf
./build spamassassin
./build blockcracking
./build update
./build exim_conf

After that, error messages should arrive in your inbox.

cPanel email problem – (13): Permission denied: failed to chdir to /home/username

I had this weird issue on one of our production cpanel servers where user’s email stopped working without any reason. Only error that was available was:

T=dovecot_virtual_delivery defer (13): Permission denied: failed to chdir to /home/username

From time to time users document root permissions were set to user nobody and execution privileges were removed. Because of this, email wasn’t working and I couldn’t find out why.

After a lot of headache I googled across this thread. Permissions were altered by cPanel’s File Protect. Somehow file protect recognized this accounts permissions weren’t right. After checking in users account, there was sub-domain created for which document root was set to “/”. This is not valid document root, and because of this, file protect altered users permissions.

I changed document root for this sub-domain and problem was solved. You should also correct user’s permissions on document root after fixing issue with file protect:

chmod +x /home/username
chown username:username /home/username

You should make sure that user accounts permissions are absolutely correct.

Hope this saves some sleep ūüôā

Password protect Netdata with NGINX / Permission denied while connecting to upstream error

Netdata is great free tool for generating server statistics. By default it’s open for entire world on port 19999 – http://servername.com:19999. It is not a good idea to leave this open so everyone can your system statistics.

One way to limit access from where it is accessible is by editing netdata.conf and specify IPS in “allow connections from” variable.

[web]
allow connections from = ip's that are allowed to access>

There is no option to password protect it. This can be done with NGINX. You can create reverse proxy, so that nginx will serve content from netdata application. To make netdata accessible on subfolder of your hostname, eg. http://my.hostname.com/netdata, then create nginx configuration like bellow.

First generate password file for nginx:

htpasswd -c /etc/nginx/.htpasswd "username"

Then create or edit existing nginx configuration to something like this:

upstream netdata {
        server 127.0.0.1:19999;
        keepalive 64;
}

server {
     listen 443 ssl http2;
     server_name my.hostname.com;
     location = /netdata {
         return 301 /netdata/;
    }

    location ~ /netdata/(?.*) {

        auth_basic "Restricted Content";
        auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/.htpasswd;

        proxy_redirect off;
        proxy_set_header Host $host;   

        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_pass_request_headers on;
        proxy_set_header Connection "keep-alive";
        proxy_store off;
        proxy_pass http://netdata/$ndpath$is_args$args;

        gzip on;
        gzip_proxied any;
        gzip_types *;
   }

    error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
    access_log off;
    ....

Also, don’t forget to edit netdata.conf and change some variables. Make netdata accessible only from localhost (nginx):

[web]
bind to = 127.0.0.1
allow connections from = localhost
allow dashboard from = localhost

You should also allow connection to port 19999 only to local traffic (localhost).

Restart nginx and netdata, then try to access like: http(s)://my.hostname.com/netdata.

If you’re getting error like bellow in your nginx error log, than chances are that SELinux is active. Disable selinux or execute this command “setsebool -P httpd_can_network_connect true”.

[crit] 8411#0: *1 connect() to 127.0.0.1:19999 failed (13: Permission denied) while connecting to upstream, client: 8.8.8.8, server: my.hostname.com, request: "GET /netdata/ HTTP/1.1", upstream: "http://127.0.0.1:19999/", host: "my.hostname.com"

 

 

 

cPanel: Your server does not support the connection encryption type you have specified

If you’re¬†getting message like¬†“Your server does not support the connection encryption type you have specified” when try to set up email in your Outlook, then chances are that your cPanel mail server has disabled some needed encryption types.

By default, cPanel disables all those protocols: SSLv2, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1.1. SSL2 and SSL3 should be disabled at all costs, but you may not get away with TLS 1.1 or even TLS 1 being disabled.

To enable TLS 1 and TLS 1.1 in your Exim, login as admin in your cpanel and then: Home -> Service Configuration -> Exim Configuration Manager. Select second option so you can insert your own directives and add this:

 +no_sslv2 +no_sslv3

WordPress returning 404 Error on all subpages

In this case I used NGINX as reverse proxy for ssl offloading in front of Apache. On this WordPress installation I was getting 404 on all subpages. Htaccess syntax was correct as it was nginx configuration. In this case, problem was caused because of missing “AllowOverride” Apache directive which didn’t allow htaccess to be processed. I added “AllowOverride ALL” in apache configuration for this virtual host. Subpages started to work.

Example:

<VirtualHost *:8080>
DocumentRoot /var/www/mysite.com/
ServerName mysite.com
ServerAlias www.mysite.com

<Directory "/var/www/mysite.com/">
AllowOverride All
</Directory>
</VirtualHost>

WordPress: Too Many Redirects Issue when NGINX reverse proxy to Apache

I installed NGINX and put it in front of Apache for SSL offloading and caching static content. Traffic is proxied from Nginx to Apache.  When I tried to open site via https, it returned this painful error “Too Many Redirects”.

Try to add this in your wp-config.php – if you have everything else configured correctly, it should work:

$_SERVER['HTTPS'] = 'On';

[kofi]

Pure-FTPd: install valid SSL certificate / solve untrusted localhost certificate problem on CentOS 7

If you installed Pure-FTPD on your CentOS 7 machine and trying to install SSL certificate on it, chances are that you added your pem file to “/etc/ssl/private/”. I installed valid certificate in this directory and still getting untrusted warning for localhost certificate. Later, I found out that this path is wrong and self signed certificate was being used. Right path on CentOS 7 is “/etc/pki/pure-ftpd/”.

Here is how to do it right on Centos.

  • Create pem certificate that contains your key, crt and intermediate all in one file –¬†pure-ftpd.pem
  • Move this certificate to¬†/etc/pki/pure-ftpd/ as this is the right directory on CentOS.
  • In your pure-ftpd.conf, set TLS to 2.
  • Enable¬†PassivePortRange from¬†30000 – 65000.
  • Restart pure-ftpd.

It should work.

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