Find common/identical lines within two files without DIFF

Here is really simple trick how to search for strings that are the same within two different files.

For presenting purposes I created two files with some text in it. Some text is the same, some not.

File 1:

> $ cat file1.txt 
test1
test2
test3
test4
test5

File2:

> $ cat file2.txt 
lala1
lala2
test3
test4
lala4
lala6

Here is how to find strings that are the same within both files:

> $ cat file1.txt file2.txt | sort | uniq -c | grep "2 " 
2 test3
2 test4

So, strings test3 and test4 occurring in both files.

Multidomain webroot for Letsencrypt with NGINX

If you have web server on which there is a lot of virtual hosts, you may want to have one webroot directory for Letsencrypt SSL certificates only. So when Letsencrypt will make the requests for SSL registration or renewal, it will look in this directory. In this case I did this on CentOS 7 with NGINX web server.

First, let’s create directory what will be used for letsencrypt purposes. It must be writable by your web server user. You can define different path.

[root@machine ~]# mkdir -p /var/www/le-certs
[root@machine ~]# chown -R wwwuser:wwwgroup /var/www/le-certs

Letsencrypt will need access in “.well-known/acme-challenge”. For NGINX add something like this in your server block for desired virtual host.

location ~ /.well-known/acme-challenge/ {
             root /var/www/le-certs/;
             break;
}

You can also create new file named, for example le-config.conf and add block above in to it. Then you can simply include this line in your virtual hosts. 

server {
             listen :443 ssl http2;
             server_name mywebsite.com www.mywebsite.com;
             root /var/www/mywebsite/;

             include le-config.conf;
              ...
}

 

 

MySQL/MariaDB – [ERROR] Plugin InnoDB registration as a STORAGE ENGINE failed error

I was migrating server and rsync all databases to new mariadb server. When tried to start mariadb on new server, I was getting this error:

Apr 24 18:30:26 my.server.com mysqld[9703]: 2018-04-24 18:30:26 140298644924544 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' init function returned error.
Apr 24 18:30:26 my.server.com mysqld[9703]: 2018-04-24 18:30:26 140298644924544 [ERROR] Plugin 'InnoDB' registration as a STORAGE ENGINE failed.
Apr 24 18:30:26 my.server.com mysqld[9703]: 2018-04-24 18:30:26 140298644924544 [Note] Plugin 'FEEDBACK' is disabled.
Apr 24 18:30:26 my.server.com mysqld[9703]: 2018-04-24 18:30:26 140298644924544 [ERROR] Unknown/unsupported storage engine: InnoDB
Apr 24 18:30:26 my.server.com mysqld[9703]: 2018-04-24 18:30:26 140298644924544 [ERROR] Aborting

Solution is to generate new ib_logfile0 and ib_logfile1 files. Just try steps bellow.

[root@lol ~]# cd /var/lib/mysql
[root@lol mysql]# mv ib_logfile0 ib_logfile0-backup 
[root@lol mysql]# mv ib_logfile1 ib_logfile1-backup
[root@lol mysql]# systemctl start mysql
[root@lol mysql]# mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.

It should work.

Pure-FTPd: install valid SSL certificate / solve untrusted localhost certificate problem on CentOS 7

If you installed Pure-FTPD on your CentOS 7 machine and trying to install SSL certificate on it, chances are that you added your pem file to “/etc/ssl/private/”. I installed valid certificate in this directory and still getting untrusted warning for localhost certificate. Later, I found out that this path is wrong and self signed certificate was being used. Right path on CentOS 7 is “/etc/pki/pure-ftpd/”.

Here is how to do it right on Centos.

  • Create pem certificate that contains your key, crt and intermediate all in one file – pure-ftpd.pem
  • Move this certificate to /etc/pki/pure-ftpd/ as this is the right directory on CentOS.
  • In your pure-ftpd.conf, set TLS to 2.
  • Enable PassivePortRange from 30000 – 65000.
  • Restart pure-ftpd.

It should work.

SFTP: Command failed

If you try to connect via SFTP with some FTP/SFTP client and you are getting error “Command failed”, you’re sftp-server path in sshd_conf is wrong.

Open your sshd_config file and edit sftp-server path accordingly to your OS.

Ubuntu:

Subsystem sftp  /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server

CentOS:

Subsystem sftp /usr/libexec/openssh/sftp-server

Restart your ssh and it should work.

Linux: restore all system permissions of your server

If you ever found your self in situation when you accidentally overwrite all permissions of your system, and everything stops working, then solution bellow may do the trick. This CentOS server was overwritten by wrong permissions through the whole system. Quick solution is to set up right permissions back. If you have backup of server that’s great. Otherwise you’ll have to set up new server with similar installation or do this on some other server with similar installation.

On “new” server, copy permissions of the whole system and save it to a file. You can also exclude dirs that you don’t need also.

find / -not -path "/proc*" -not -path "/dev*" -not -path "/sys*" -not -path "/var/www*" -exec stat -c "chmod %a %n;" {} \; > permissions.txt

On your “broken” server, rewrite all permissions:

cat permissions.txt | bash

RoundCube: Could not save new password. Connection error. Recv failure: Connection reset by peer

If you’re having trouble when try to change your email password in Roundcube on your Directadmin installation, than error will be probably something like this:

Could not save new password. Connection error. Recv failure: Connection reset by peer

Solution is simple. Just open Roundcube configuration file (/var/www/html/roundcube/plugins/password/config.inc.php) and find:

$rcmail_config['password_directadmin_host'] = 'tls://localhost';

then, change it to:

$rcmail_config['password_directadmin_host'] = 'ssl://localhost';

It should work.

Create and password protect/encrypt zip archive from command line / stored 0% message

When sending zip archives that contains risky/secure content, you should always encrypt and password protect them. Especially when sending them to clients via email, Dropbox or some other public sharing method. To do that on Linux is very simple. You can do it with commands bellow. When executed you’ll be prompted to enter password.

When adding file, just do this:

zip --encrypt myarchive.zip myfile.txt

But when adding directory with subdirectorys and files, than you should always include “-r” flag to tell zip to use recursion. Otherwise you’ll end up with empty directory and see message like this “adding: behaviour.exchange/ (stored 0%)”

To add directory recursively:

zip --encrypt -r myarchive.zip mydir/

 

YUM: Error: Network error: Connection reset by peer

If you get this error message when trying to install packages via yum package manager, than just execute command bellow and it should fix your problem.

yum clean expire-cache

Update all php extensions at once with YUM

With YUM, upgrading php is simple as “yum install php”. This will install latest php version on your machine. But if you have multi different php modules that aren’t part of php package (eg. gd, mysqli …), than you can use this simple one liner and install all those modules at once.

Just run this as root:

php -m | grep -v "Modules" | while read i; do yum install php-$i -y; done

This will check for all currently installed php packages and will try to upgrade them.

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